- dry grass
- pine cones
- birch bark
- cotton wool
- the insides of tampons
- empty birds' nests
- char cloth
Ideally you'll have waterproof matches in your survival pack. Use these to light your tinder, or use one of the alternative methods below.
Once your tinder is ignited, you still need to keep things small because there won't be enough heat to ignite large pieces of fuel. This is the kindling stage. Think dry leaves and small twigs-as dry as possible (twigs should snap easily). Add them gradually to the flame, making sure you don't smother it by starving it of oxygen.
Only when you have a decent blaze should you start adding larger pieces of fuel. But do it gradually never rush things. Remember the old adage: look after a fire when it small, and it will look after you when it big.
Having said that, keep it small. In general, small fires are best, because:
- They’re easy to manage
- they use less fuel
- they’re less likely to get out of control
- in most situations ,a small fire will perform all the life-saving functions as successfully as a big one