In the absence of topographic map and compass, soldiers should master some methods of using natural features to determine direction.
It's very simple to use the sun to determine the direction
A pole (straight pole) can be used to make it perpendicular to the ground, and a stone can be placed at the vertex a of the pole shadow; after about 10 minutes, when the vertex of the pole shadow moves to the vertex B, another stone can be placed. Connect two points a and B into a straight line. The direction of this straight line is the east-west direction. The direction perpendicular to AB is the north-south direction. In the northern hemisphere, one end of the line to the sun is the south, and vice versa.
The direction of the sun is determined by means of a pointer watch. The method is: when the watch is placed horizontally, the position indicated by the hour hand (24-hour system) will face the sun after the time number is halved, and the direction indicated by the 12 o'clock on the dial is roughly north. If the time is 16 o'clock, the scale of the watch at 8 o'clock points to the sun, and the scale at 12 o'clock points to the north.
When the weather is clear at night, Polaris can be used to determine the direction. To find Polaris, you need to find the constellation Ursa Major. The constellation consists of seven stars and starts like a spoon. When you find the Big Dipper, follow the line between stars a and B on the edge of the scoop and extend to the scoop mouth about 5 times the space between stars a and B. a brighter star is Polaris. North is the direction indicated by Polaris. You can also find Polaris by using the constellation Cepheus, which is opposite to dipper. The constellation of Andromeda is composed of five stars with the same brightness as the Big Dipper. It looks like W. In front of the middle of the W-shaped gap, about twice the width of the entire gap, you can find Polaris.
Polaris determines the North
It is a subsidizing method to determine the orientation by using the features of the ground features. When using, it should be used flexibly according to different situations. Independent trees usually have luxuriant branches and leaves in the South and smooth bark. The ring line on the stump is usually thin in the South and dense in the north. The doors and windows of the houses in the countryside and the main gate of the temple usually open to the south. Snow on buildings, mounds, ridges and highlands usually melts faster in the South than in the north. Large rocks, mounds and trees are thick in the south, while moss is easy to grow in the north.
When you lose your way in the wild, don't panic, but stop at once, always remember the road calmly, try to find a way to reorient according to all possible signs, and then find the road. The most reliable way is to return to the original place of departure.
When you lose your way in the mountains, you should first climb high and look far to see where you should go. Generally, it is necessary to walk in the direction of low terrain, so it is safest to run along the river and meet the water source easily, which is especially important in the forest. Because roads and settlements are often built along the river.
If you meet a fork in the road, there are many roads and you are at a loss, you should first make clear the direction you want to go, and then choose the right road. If the directions of several roads are roughly the same and cannot be determined, the middle road should be taken first, so that the right and left can be found. Even if the wrong road is taken, it will not deviate too far.
Crossing complex terrain
In order to avoid disorientation, save physical strength and improve the speed of travel in mountainous areas, we should strive to have roads that do not go through forests and mountains, and roads that do not go through paths. If there is no road, we can choose to travel on the longitudinal ridge, ridge, hillside, the edge of rivers and streams, as well as the terrain with high trees and sparse forests, large gaps and sparse grass. We should try our best to walk on the beam instead of the ditch, and walk vertically instead of horizontally.
When you can walk, you don't have to walk in small steps. In this way, you can take a lot less steps down tens of kilometers. When you are tired, take a relaxing walk to rest without stopping. When climbing the rock, the rock shall be carefully observed, the rock quality and weathering degree shall be carefully identified, and the climbing direction and route shall be determined.
The basic method of climbing rock is "three-point fixation", that is, to move the remaining foot or hand after fixing one foot or two feet and one hand, so as to move the body's center of gravity up. The hands and feet should be well coordinated to avoid simultaneous movement of two points. They must be stable, light and fast. The most appropriate distance and the most stable fulcrum should be selected according to their own conditions. Do not stride across the big steps, grasp or pedal too far.
Climbing a hill below 30 degrees can go up in a straight line. When climbing, lean forward a little, touch the ground with the sole of your foot, bend your knees, and keep your feet in the shape of a splay. Don't step too fast. When the slope is more than 30 degrees, zigzag climbing route is generally adopted. When climbing, the legs are slightly bent, the upper body is tilted forward, the inner toes are forward, the whole feet are on the ground, and the outer toes are slightly turned outward. In case of slipping carelessly, you should face the hillside immediately, open your arms but straighten your legs, raise your toes, and move your body up as far as possible to reduce the sliding speed. In this way, we can try to find the climbing and supporting objects in the taxiing. Never sit facing out, because it will not only slide faster, but also roll easily on the steep slope.
Rivers are often obstacles in mountainous and plain areas. Do not rush into the water when encountering a river. Carefully observe and then determine the place and method of crossing the river. Mountain rivers usually have fast current, low water temperature and rough riverbed. When crossing, in order to maintain body balance, a noonday should be used to support the upstream direction of the water, or a stone weighing 15-20 kg should be held by hand. When walking in groups, three or four people can walk in a row, embracing each other's shoulders. The strongest body is located in the upstream direction.
There are two ways to get food in the wild. One is to hunt wild animals, the other is to collect wild plants.
In order to hunt wild animals, we should first know the habitat of the animals, master the living rules of the animals, and then take the methods of killing, trapping, hunting card and shooting. It needs a long time of training and practice under the guidance of experts to really master. The following is just a brief introduction to the edible insects and edible wild plants, and the edible methods.
In the world, people eat snails, earthworms, ants, cicadas, crickets, butterflies, locusts, grasshoppers, Lake flies, spiders, mantis, etc. Although people are not used to eating insects, and even feel disgusted, but in the last resort, in order to maintain life, maintain combat effectiveness, and then complete the task, do not prevent a try. However, it should be noted that in fact, it should be cooked or roasted thoroughly to prevent the parasites in insects from entering the human body, leading to poisoning or disease.
Common edible insects include locusts, roasted with soy sauce, boiled or fried; Mantis: roasted or fried after wings removal; Dragonfly: edible after dry frying: cicada: eaten raw or fried, larvae can also be eaten; centipede: fried dry, but the taste is not good; longicorn: eaten raw or roasted; ant: fried, good taste; spider: Roasted after feet removal; termite: eaten raw or fried; pine Caterpillars: roasted food.
Edible wild plants include edible wild fruits, wild vegetables, algae, lichens, mushroom ferns, etc. The recognition of edible wild plants is the main content of field knowledge from bottom to top. China has a vast area, suitable for all kinds of plant growth, of which about 2000 kinds can be eaten. Common edible wild fruits in China are: mountain grape, DUS, black blind fruit, raspberry, seabuckthorn, torch fruit, Myrtle, Elaeagnus, black rice tree, emblica, etc., especially wild chestnut, coconut, papaya, which are better food for emergency survival. Common wild vegetables include bitter cabbage, dandelion, Houttuynia cordata, purslane, thorn grass, shepherd's purse, wild amaranth, broomstick, water chestnut, lotus, reed, moss, etc. Wild vegetables can be eaten raw, fried, boiled or soaked.
However, ordinary people need to be trained for a certain period of time under the guidance of experts to master these knowledge. Here is a simple method to identify toxic and non-toxic wild plants for emergency use. Usually cut a small hole in the collected plant, put a pinch of salt into it, and then carefully observe whether the original color is changed. Usually, the discolored plant cannot be eaten.
Access to drinking water
There are two ways to get drinking water: one is to dig groundwater, the other is to purify surface water. Let's just talk about how to get drinking water from surface water.
Usually, rainwater can be drunk directly. When it rains, a large amount of rainwater can be collected with tarpaulins and plastic cloth, or with empty cans, cups, helmets and other containers.
When there is no reliable drinking water and no inspection equipment, the water quality can be roughly identified according to its color, taste, temperature and water trace.
Finding and collecting water for field survival skills
When drinking the water in the ponding area, it must be disinfected, precipitated and boiled.
Rainwater collection: dig a hole in the ground, lay a layer of plastic, and surround it with clay to effectively collect rainwater.
Tracking animal, bird, insect, or human tracks can find water sources.
The skill of field survival: making fire in the field
Sleeping bag usage
Sleeping bags are tricky. People who can't "sleep" will feel cold even when they use the high cold sleeping bag (minus 35 ℃) under the normal low temperature (minus 5 ℃), so how can they sleep warmer? When using the sleeping bag, there are many external factors that affect the performance of the sleeping bag. It should be noted that the sleeping bag itself is not hot. It only effectively reduces the body temperature loss. The following conditions will help you sleep warmer.
▲ keep away from wind and moisture
In the wild, a windproof tent can provide a warm sleeping environment. When choosing the camp, do not choose the valley bottom, which is the gathering place of cold air, but also try to avoid the ridge or valley that bears strong wind. A good moisture-proof pad can effectively separate the sleeping bag from the cold and humid ground, and the inflatable effect is better. Two ordinary moisture-proof pads are required on the snow.
▲ keep the sleeping bag dry
The water absorbed by the sleeping bag is not mainly from the outside, but from the human body. Even in extremely cold conditions, the human body will still discharge at least a small cup of water during sleep. The heat preservation cotton will lose its elasticity and reduce its heat preservation ability after being damped. If sleeping bag is used continuously for many days, it is best to dry it in the sun. Cleaning the sleeping bag often can keep the insulation cotton elastic.
Some soft clothes can also be used as thickened pajamas. The space between the person and the sleeping bag can also be filled to enhance the warmth retention of the sleeping bag.
▲ warm up before going to bed
The human body is the heat source of the sleeping bag. If you do a little warm-up exercise or drink a hot drink before going to bed, it will slightly increase the body temperature and help shorten the warming time of the sleeping bag.
Standing first aid kit
In the wild, no one can predict what will happen. A first-aid kit can prolong your life. You must take it with you.
The first aid kit stores the following items for basic first aid:
Different width and material to deal with different areas and types of damage.
Generally, there are:
Gauze rolling strip bandage: it is suitable for general wound treatment, mainly used for fixed dressing.
Elastic rolling strip bandage: it is elastic and can be used to treat wounds, but also to treat general strains, sprains, varicose veins and other injuries, so as to fix injured limbs and reduce swelling.
Triangle bandage: Triangle bandage can be used in full or folded into different width bandages. It is usually used as a hand hook to support the upper limbs.
It is made of several layers of gauze, with flexible texture. It is mainly used to cover wounds and absorb secretions. For wounds with more bleeding and secretions, it can be thickened.
The dressing bag is composed of a cotton pad and a rolling strip bandage. Cover the wound with a cotton pad (i.e. dressing) and fix it with the attached rolling strip bandage.
This paper introduces the use of several commonly used disinfectants
1. Gentian violet (purple potion): accelerate scab formation and wound healing.
2. Red mercury (red potion): it can protect the wound and has antibacterial effect.
3. Alcohol and iodine: used for surface disinfection of non mucosal wounds. It can not be used for disinfection of damaged wounds.
4. Hydrogen peroxide: it is used for basic disinfection of contaminated mucous membrane or damaged wound.
Clean cotton ball
It is used to clean the wound and dip in disinfectant when using.
It is usually used to treat small wounds. Before applying the adhesive tape, make sure that the skin around the wound is dry and clean, otherwise it cannot be firmly applied.
Used to fix dressings, roller bandages or triangular bandages
Such as Kangtaike, Ganmaotong, berberine, Niuhuang Jiedu tablet, bilitong, Huoxiang Zhengqi pill, stomach medicine, etc
Vacuum extractor, Shanghai snake medicine, Jidesheng snake medicine
Eye drops, flower oil, hemostatic paste, cooling oil, wind expelling oil, etc
Survival skills in the wild -- how to find the right way
As long as there is a sun, you can use your watch to find out the direction.
1. When drinking the water in the ponding area, it must be disinfected, precipitated and boiled before drinking.
2. Rainwater collection: dig a hole in the ground, pave a layer of plastic, and surround it with clay to effectively collect rainwater.
3. water can be found by tracking animals, birds, insects, or human traces.
Other skills editing
Finding and collecting water for field survival skills
Life can't live without water. A normal person can live for three weeks without food, but he can't live for three days without water, so water should be given priority, with a few tips, hoping to help you quickly find or collect water in the wild.
1. The preferred place to find water source is at the bottom of the valley. In high mountain areas, water should be found along rock cracks and dry up the river
A spring is often found in a bed of sand and stone.
2. On the coast, the pit should be dug above the highest water line, and there is likely to be a layer of filter water with a thickness of about 5cm floating on the dense sea water layer.
3. When drinking the water in the ponding area, it must be disinfected, precipitated and boiled.
4. Rainwater collection: dig a hole in the ground, lay a layer of plastic, and surround it with clay to effectively collect rainwater.
5. Condensed water: put a plastic bag on a twig with thick leaves, and the transpiration of the leaves will produce condensed water.
6. Tracking animal, bird, insect, or human tracks can find water sources.
7. Taking water from plants: water is often found in the internode of hollow plants such as bamboo, and the juice of liana is often drinkable. The fruits and stems of palms and cacti are rich in water.
8. Daylight distiller: in the arid desert area, water can be collected better by the following methods: dig a pit about 90cm wide and 45cm deep in the relatively wet ground, place a water collector in the center of the pit bottom, and hang a plastic film drawn into an arc on the pit surface. The temperature of moist soil and air in the pit is increased by light energy, and water vapor is produced by evaporation. When the water vapor contacts with the plastic film, it condenses into water drops and slides into the utensils.
What can fire do? Cook the food. Bingo! It also has many uses: it can release heat to produce warmth, which will save heat loss in the body; it can dry clothes; smoked meat can keep fresh for a long time; it can scare away dangerous beasts; its smoke can drive away pests, and it can also forge metal tools Teach you a few moves to learn how to make a fire in the wild.
The first is to find the inflammable kindling materials: such as dead grass, dry leaves, birch bark, pine needles, turpentine, twigs, paper, cotton and so on.
The second is to pick up the dry firewood: the dry, immortal trunk or branches should be selected for the dry firewood. We should try our best to choose hardwoods such as pine, oak, oak, birch, locust, cherry and apricot, which have a long burning time, a big fire and a lot of charcoal. Don't pick up the wood close to the ground. The wood close to the ground has high humidity, is not easy to burn, and has a lot of smoke.
The next step is to clear an open space that is sheltered from the wind, flat and dry grass and firewood. Place the igniter in the middle, gently put on the fine pine branches, fine dry firewood, etc., then set up the larger and longer firewood, and then light the igniter. The setting of the fire should be adapted to local conditions. It can be designed into cone, star, parallel, side-by-side, roof, pasture and so on. You can also use stones to support the dry firewood or under the rock wall, lean the dry firewood against the rock wall, and place the guide person below to light it. Generally, a pit with a diameter of about 1m and a depth of about 30cm shall be dug at the shelter. If the ground is hard and you can't dig a hole, you can also find some stones to make a circle. The size of the circle depends on the size of the fire. Then put the leader in the middle of the circle, put some firewood on it, and light the leader to light the firewood. If the kindling is about to burn out and the dry wood has not been ignited yet, the kindling shall be added into the gap of the dry wood until the dry wood is burned up, instead of putting the wood on fire again.
Finally, it's better to light a campfire near the water, or prepare some mud, sand and moss beside the campfire to put out the fire in time.
Find the right path
The skill of finding the right distance must be accumulated through the usual field activities. For example, we usually form the habit of referring to the map and compass at any time, and at the same time, we actively observe the surrounding terrain and plants to determine the correct position.
The sun rises from the East and sets in the west, which is the most basic way to identify the direction. It can also be measured by the method of making shadows with wooden sticks. When the sun is enough to make a shadow, erect a straight stick (more than 1 meter) on the flat ground, place a stone (or make other marks) on the top of the shadow of the stick, and the shadow of the stick will move with the sun. 30-60 minutes later, put another stone on the top of the shadow of the stick again. Then draw a straight line between the two stones, and in the middle of the line draw a straight line that intersects it vertically. Then step on the first mark point with the left foot and the second mark point with the right foot. At this time, the front of the standing person is the north, the back is the south, the right hand is the East, and the left hand is the West.
If you lose your way on a cloudy day, you can get directions by the growth of moss on trees or stones. In terms of trees in the northern hemisphere, the leafy side is the south. If the trees are cut, the one with the wider ring and the moss is the north.
Use of stars: in the northern hemisphere, Polaris is usually the target. The key of using Polaris to identify the direction at night is to find Polaris accurately in the vast sea of stars. There are many ways to know Polaris. Here is a simple and effective way:
First of all, look for dipper like Big Dipper (a). If the interval between the two stars on the dipper handle is extended five times, you can find Polaris (d) in this straight line. Generally, the stars on these two handles are specially called key stars. If you can't see the Big Dipper, look for the opposite sign (b), which is made up of five stars. They look like the shape of the letter M or W inclining to one side. Draw a straight line from one of the stars in the constellation Cepheus, and you can find the North Star almost at the same distance from the big dipper to the north star. The direction of Polaris is just north.
Look at the position with a watch: you want to know the position without a compass. In this case, as long as there is a sun, you can use your watch to find out the direction.
Place the match stick on the ground, and then place the watch horizontally on the ground. Overlap the shadow of the match stick with the short needle. The direction of the surface 12 o'clock and the scale indicated by the short needle are in the south in the middle, and the opposite side is in the north.
If there is no match on your body, you can also use twigs to make the shadow more accurate. If you are engaged in challenging survival activities, remember to wear a watch, then the ordinary watch is more valuable than the digital watch. Because of the clock minute needle on the common watch, it will become an important tool for survival when necessary.
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